Kjell Standal, Bergen. Norway,
(this translation has some unclear text. im working on doing it better,but i hope you get the main message, its one organism dynamically in interaction with experiences that saturates and shapes our biology inge jarl clausen)
“Nothing other than the senses can heal the soul,
at the same time that only the soul can heal the senses ”
PSYCHE AND THE BODY TWO ASPECTS OF THE SAME .
How recent research is building up for a more holistic understanding the psyche/body.
The body’s life is of the senses and the emotions of life.
The body feels really thirsty,
Really enjoy in the Sun or snow,
Real pleasure by the scent of a rose or the sight of a syrinbusk;
All the emotions are the property of the body,
And will only be recognized by the mind.
In the field of psychology is currently keen to show that psychotherapy has the effect. Getting more sophisticated and complex measurement methods are being proposed (for example, array-the paradigm, the therapy, for which patients of which therapists etc). One is plunged into a “defensive position” in which it is easy to overlook that which is clearly up in the day. I think you have to start in “the other end” for a closer look at: “what is it that makes that the therapy has the effect? How does psychotherapy? ”
Recent research provides us today with an opportunity to study this phenomenon that Freud could only dream of. Emotions are once again come on the agenda, and one has in the past ten years made great strides in the field of research on emotion, learning and memory. Such research can be of great help when we want to explain that the therapy has the effect, not to mention how. It can further help us to develop more effective therapy forms and hopefully make us better therapists.
Psycho therapy has in the predominantly extent been concerned about the psyche alone. A dualistic mindset catches us in far greater degree than we are aware on a daily basis. We have dealt with mental illness out of the idea that the psyche can be changed without having it affect the rest of the organism. According to recent research, it seems important that we see the big picture. We can not process the psyche without that it also affects on the body and vice versa.
The psychology and medicine is still captured by a dualistic thinking set. We treat people as if the body and psyche were two independent sizes. The doctor takes care of our physical ailments, the body, while the psychologist offers psychotherapy. This splitting is emphasized by the words and thought habits. Body-soul-the dichotomy is embodied in the conceptual framework and theories, and has been a part of our perception of reality (Thornquist, 1992). The body is divided into organ systems and specialists treat these systems with little thought on the whole. The mental development has been explained and understood completely independent of the physical development. If you become mentally ill, do not get the body care and care, and want to personal development, it is with words, without the body. The problem is that we can never understand the big picture by examining the parts. Gjærum (1994) argues that the later psycho biological research and clinical work on many sites give reason to question such a simple understanding of the interaction between the mental and the physical factors.
Dualism is the mainstay in the medicine and health service in Western thinking in General. By separating the body and mind, physically and mentally, we see not the sick man’s experience of itself and its disease and existence as a whole (Hedberg, 1992). To remain within a dualistic frame of reference, make us blind to the parts of the reality we are facing. The dualistic glasses makes the body as expression, his body as the carrier of the life and history-remains out of reach for us. The body as expression field so we are experiencing it on a daily basis, appears to be set aside in professional contexts (Thornquist, 1992). The body is being constantly broken down and built back up again. The way we live in and how we think and feel, it could affect the diseases we have. Health is not static, but a dynamic energy flow that is changing in the course of his life. Often exist in fact, disease and health care side by side (Kabat-Zinn in Moyers, 1994). Thornquist (1992) says that the gap between the professional conceptual world and the intuitive and often silent experience world, shows the need for a clarification of the dualism and its consequences.
In this approach, I will first take to me how we until now have looked upon the body and psyche that two distinct phenomena, and what consequences this has in the field of medicine and psychology. This will show the need for a new model to understand and control the disease and disorders. We have to leave the mechanistic concept that the big picture is just the sum of its parts. Based on the research I will argue that we in psychotherapy as well as in medicine now have to get a more holistic understanding of the human being who comes for treatment. If one takes research seriously, it will be able to involve a paradigm shift in the field of management system with an extensive collaboration across professional boundaries. You will be able to defend to a small degree to treat patients as organ systems or the psyche, but rather than see how it to treat affects whole. Psychotherapeutic treatment must integrate the newer research shows, which will lead to that one takes distance from the dualistic mindset that has been prevailing till now.
Vegetoterapi is a therapy-type form that considers the human being as a whole, which both body and psyche. I want to finally look into why such a therapy kind seems meaningful based on the knowledge of research now gives us. This is meant as an example of a antidualistisk processing way.
The ancient Greeks worshipped “a sound mind in a healthy body” and can to a certain extent is said to have had an overall understanding of the human being. The Greeks emphasized the natural causes of suffering, in which the body and psyche influenced each other. As well as Plato Aristotle talked about how the psyche affected the body and vice versa (Kaplan, 1975 in Bishop, 1994). In the younger ancients grew it off a split. The body was perceived as not free and bound by desire and needs. The thought on the other hand, and the soul as the room thought, was perceived as the human opportunity to freedom, which could exceed all material constraints.
European medicine was religiously dominated during the middle ages. The Renaissance emphasized the natural cause of suffering. Most often be attributed to Descartes “credit” for the separator body-soul. Both Descartes and Spinoza did the sharp distinction between the soul and the body. Descartes identified the human “nature” as its tankeevne. He had a mechanistic view of the body, in which all the bodily functions is predictable, at least. Descartes made a deal with the Catholic Church. He was allowed to study science, and left the mind, feelings, and consciousness of the Church (the Pert in Moyers, 1994). The radical dualism, we find again in our time word usage, such as eg. “batteries need to be” and “we are burnt out.”
With the enlightenment and the industrialization was one occupied by the body’s individual parts, and body the power was tools for production work in the industry. You got an alienation in relation to one’s own body. The body was off limits because the bourgeoisie imposed people social restrictions, the rules for body use and accepted body functions. Foucault has written a lot about the disiplinering of the body and the individual, where the human-body becomes the object of social power relations (for example, Foucault, 1991).
Elias ´ (1897-1990) work “the Prozess der Zivilisation Uber” from 1938, has become a sociological classic when it comes to the regulation of the body. Elias showing how the domestication of the body and of the affektene is essential in a society where many people are referred to each other’s services. Body functions are subject to ever-stricter control. Elias claims that it eventually became a raised pinlighetster-skel. Skikkenes story is also about how we learned to suppress our feelings (Elias, 1938). The link between the body’s instrument rating and shame coated embarrassment, have prepared the body both as a productive force and machine and forced like and sensuousness into “behind” muscle armor and retained breath, in a “locked” hidden and subhuman bodily device (Berg Eriksen, 1989 in Engelsrud, 1990). So we can say that the Western culture carries both on the thought forms and experiences that have tamed and removed the body’s sensuality, uttrykksevne, and motion the urge. The Western body culture is left with a instrumentally, a stereotypical robber thing and out bodily sight.
Industrial society’s body still dominates the view of our culture. In addition, the body in modern society has become “shop window” and the subject of perfection. Jean Baudrillard says that modern society is characterized by the fact that the human being through its fascination is controlled by objects. The spontaneous in the us are being hampered by a deliberate calculated use of effects. As passive recipients, we are bombarded with impressions. What impact does it have for our health? What’s up with the sensuous body and needs to touch, movement, excitement and relaxation? The body can be considered as “a lonely anarchist”. The historian Trond Berg Eriksen idea claims that “the body wants to take revenge themselves” when, in the process being referred to civilization to be a pure vehicle for rasjo-nelle plans. When the mind does not get let out, it becomes the negative feelings sitting again in the body. Many lifestyle disorders come because we are not taking the body’s signals seriously (Berg Eriksen, 1993).
A dualistic understanding of the body can have multiple forms of expression. A mechanistic fitness culture, an instrumental interpretation of the body, a romanticized body cultivation and a sense of furry, domesticated body, can be stereotyped variations of a dualistic body understanding (Engelsrud, 1990).
Why is dualistic thinking a problem?
Dualism has led to a medical model that is hospital-and clinic-based and that emphasizes increasing sophisticated technology on the treatment of diseases (Bishop, 1994). Reduksjonismen might be a good point of view to solve well distinct and well-defined problems. The method of science and technology has led to great progress in the field of medicine. But the mutual dependency that exists within the body and between the body and its surroundings, is often lost in such a thinking (he says, 1994).
In the last few years we have seen an evolution of a highly specialized technological medical world who have a dehumaniserende impact on the individual. There is a contradiction between this level of sophisticated technology and persepsjonen of the patient as a whole person. To treat a patient’s specific organic or mental pathology in isolation, is not the same thing as to treat the patient (Green, 1985).
The idea of a “mind” freed from the body, thus, seems to have shaped the way that Western medicine approach the study and treatment of the disorder. This is true as well studies that practice. Damasio (1994) believes that Descartes dualism obscures the roots of the human “Mind” in a biological complex organism.
Medical science has helped to create unrealistic expectations through to give the impression that it is the experts ‘ and the community’s task to keep us healthy. This has contributed to a pacification, alienation and shortcoming of the experience of the liability in relation to their own problems. Monsen (1989) claims that both the somatic therapy and psychiatry is characterised by an unimaginable ensidighet in his view of diseases and their treatment. This shortcoming on the overall thinking also reduces the effect of the treatment. Many bodily and mental symptoms is probably the expression of the same type of back-end issues. In today’s welfare society, one can easily frus three res due to its kontaktløshet, social isolation, livsstilssykdomeer and mental health issues which we are fighting with, because of our one-tailed and strong science and technology embossed perception of the outer and tangible reality that the only real, we miss in our culture a necessary enhancement of the individual and the contact with the inner adventure dimension which Kierkegaard describes. According to Kierkegaard is man’s liberation in the man himself (Monsen, 1989).
Any disease, big or small, the individual’s homeostasis, its psycho-biological balance (Green, 1985). The intensity of emotional response is usually proportional to the disease severity, but the disease is a subjective experience and there are many exceptions to this rule. Unfortunately, that’s the emotional responses to the disease often during the season and will be considered as something out of the ordinary that should bagatelliseres or will be ignored. People will register its influence on the body, but are less willing to sign up for its influence on the psyche.
At the center of all psychosomatic understanding, is the weight you put on the Suppression of emotions as a possible causal factor to physical diseases. There is a high prevalence of subjective health complaints in the normal population (Ursin, 1997). More than 50% of the patients who attend the GPS, does not come due to clinically identifiable diseases, but due to emotional or personal reasons (Jennings, 1986, in Bishop, 1994). On the other hand, a person may have a disease without feeling it. For high blood pressure is called “the silent killer” because it is difficult to detect (Galton, 1973 in Bishop, 1994). Cancer can be developed over the course of weeks, months and years without being detected (Renneker, 1988). Studies show that people who are prone to negative affect (“negative affectivity.”, NA), is more sensitive to the physical discomfort than people who are not inclined to these conditions (Watson and Pennebaker, 1989, 1991, in Bishop, 1994). Sensitivisering, that is, increased reactivity to stimuli, has been suggested as the underlying mechanism for somatisering in General and for co-morbid conditions such as depression, panic disorder, mania, phobia, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and syster on ovaries (Ursin, 1997).
A overkonsumering of medicine is also a part of the development we’ve had. It helps to hide the psychological, social, and economic issues behind medical diagnoses. The treatment targets the part aspects, the symptoms, instead of working on the underlying causes. The medication against human life issues is in itself a serious, disturbing problem (Monsen, 1989). Today creating the great prevalence of antidepressants, selective seretoninreopptakerhemmere, or the so called “happiness pills” of great concern.
With the help of technology, we have surpassed our body boundaries, so that we can live with more or less comfort anywhere in the world. For all other organisms, the body will define when, how, and how long they will live. Despite this, the potential to be adaptive, it seems as if we fail. Our health data reflects this fact (Goldberg, 1991)
Medicine has reached a point where the costs rising while the dividend yield is falling. An essential element is lacking, namely the patient’s participation. That is where it is important to make the most out of the connection between the body and mind. What we today call the health care system, acts as a sick care system, instead of having to look after our health. Many doctors know the discomfort when talking about the psyche, and psychological contexts. We need to be more open and less afraid to talk about the mind (Zawacki in Moyers, 1994). Behavioral Medicine and social psychology are areas that can put us in a position to take charge of their own behavior and put on us so that we are living healthier. A greater understanding of the big picture, it will necessarily lead to a closer cooperation between doctors and psychologists for the good of the patient.
Angel is one of the strongest critics of the biomedical model. He claims that the model rests on assumptions about a clear separation of body-mind and a reductionism that claim that the complex phenomena that disease can be reduced to physical phenomena alone. The treatment is to treat the physical aspects of diseases, only secondarily with the patient as a person (Engel, 1977 in Bishop, 1994). Exclusion of psychosocial factors such as key elements in the pathogenesis and progression of disease/disorder, makes this model invalid as the standard for clinical practice.
The consequence of a practice based on a dualistic comprehension frame, is that one is building up below the patient’s object relation-considers the relationship-to the own body. The body can be experienced as it is being considered and treated: as something on the outside of one’s self, something that it is to be done something about-be checked and must be fixed. Because we in medicine usually separate the body and mind, physically and mentally, we’re going to miss out on the whole. Hedberg says that the body is our phenomenological Foundation, the prerequisite for our being (Hedberg, 1992). One has to ask the question whether health care providers operating with different type of rationality, in which the body is a person in your life but will be a subject in academic contexts (Thornquist, 1992). When the person lose touch with the emotions and the body, it will lose touch with themselves. The body is perceived not as “the real human”. This can also make the feelings become unavailable and uerkjente. When the body hardens as the object, it seems muscles and breathe mutually binding and bremsende on the body’s open attitude to the outside world. It then becomes difficult to get a coherent understanding of themselves as sympathetic person (Engelsrud, 1985).
Instead of splitting in body and soul, or soma and psyche and see it that falls in between as psychosomatic, one can ask questions about how the symptoms relates to this human being. How to find the patient’s symptoms and their disease (Boss in Hedberg, 1992). Freud pointed out the symptomenes communicative function, and, based on this understanding, he discovered the unconscious. Only the parts of the brain can speak to us through words. both the body and the psyche has language that cannot always be translated verbally (Goldberg, 1991).
Medical treatment must involve an understanding of what a disease means for a particular individual at a particular time in his life (Green, 1985). The current model in the health care system, the biomedical model, is not concerned with disease/suffering psychosocial aspects. By excluding the emotional and social factors from the diagnostic and treatment process, the clinician ignores completely the connection between body and psyche and, consequently, the injuries he patient. Any patient living in a specific context that can be beneficial or detrimental to his welfare. Optimal medical care requires a thorough understanding of each individual’s sykdomsdynamikk (Green, 1985). Deutsch and Murphy (1955 in Green, 1985) believes that it is impossible to treat organic disease and emotional suffering individually. It required a combination of biological and psychological understanding because the feelings are both bodily and mental (Monsen, 1989).
Recent research shows that the body is changeable enough to reflect any mental event. Nothing can touch them without that the whole move. A body that can “think” is essentially different from the medical science today treats. The “know” what’s going on with it, not only in the brain, but everywhere where there are carrier molecules, and that is, in every cell (Chopra,)
When the body was not to stir, remained the soul as the subject for penance. That’s according to Foucault the origin of the human soul, to the psychology and psykotera-pien (Foucault, 1991).
If we look at the psychology as a knowledge tradition, we find that it mainly is characterized by two directions. The experimental section toward the reductionist perspective and have the knowledge of the biological conditions. The clinical-oriented section also toward a more dualistic vision, where especially psychotherapy and the emphasis of the psychic being understood relatively independently of the bodily conditions.
In “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (1970) Kuhn points out that we find it difficult to fathom a universe that is infinitely complex and large, and that we therefore try to reduce it to the proportions that we can more easily deal with Thomas Kuhn believes, therefore, that scientific knowledge in a certain area is limited and structured by a frame, a paradigm. A scientific revolution involving the replacement of one paradigm to another. Paradigm shifts in this century have mirrored the psychological time spirit. The positivistiske behaviorismen considered mental processes as by-products. Skinner argued that one should just researching the things one could measure. Sentiment was thus not a theme. The cognitive revolution in the ‘ 60s brought “the mind” back to psychology. It was now legitimate to do research on mental processes, how the brain records and stores information. One was seduced by the computer to look at this as a model for how the brain works. The feelings were, however, increasingly the “forbidden area”. One lacked understanding for that reason is led by and can overskygges of emotion.
Delicacy of place in bevissthetslivet are in surprising extent been left out of the research. “Now is the science finally able to speak with authority about these urgent and complex questions about the most irrational aspects of the psyche, and with a degree of precision, mapping out the human heart” (Goleman, 1997). PERT (Pert in Moyers, 1994) mean we are in a scientific revolution that is to incorporate the mind and emotions in the science again. This will have enormous consequences for medical practice.
The psychology one now starting to recognize the delicacy of critical role in thinking (Goleman, 1997). Antonio Damasio is among the world’s leading neurologists. He claims that it is now clear that there is scientific basis to clear the distinction between “mind” and “body”. Damasio believes that emotions is an expression of our body condition, a link between the body and its survival regulation on the one hand and the awareness on the other. Rather than look at the emotions that are complicating factors for the intellectual brain, he considers them as an integral part of the decision maker process. Damasio says that rational decisions are not a product of logic alone, but requires the support of emotions and feelings. He shows that the absence of emotions on the contrary can break with the rationality (Damasio, 1994). Damasio describes how emotions based on past experience makes it easier for us to make decisions. The choices are motivated first by the preferences embodied in the organism. We have been given what he calls the “somatic marker”, which helps us when we take a decision. So we learn from past experiences. A somatic condition, negative or positive, which is caused by a given representation, operates not only as a marker for the value of what is represented, but a also determines whether or not it deserves further attention. The body represents, therefore, a frame of reference for “the mind” (Damasio, 1994).
Such an understanding of the reciprocal interaction between body and psyche should be of vital importance for the therapy form we choose to give our patients. It is not enough to give a therapy in which one looks away from the body. The sentiment seems to be enriching. It is a poor model of bevissthetslivet who ignores them. Emotion is first and foremost about the body. They give us information about how our visceral and muscular condition are affected. Emotions make us able to be aware of your body, “mind the body”. They give us insight into what goes on in the body (Goleman, 1997). It will be remarkable if we as therapists would ignore the more recent research gives us knowledge about this interaction. In the middle of the debate about which therapy form which has the best effect, you have to move towards an overall thinking. We have to see that the patient is both body and psyche and hence treating the whole person. That is to say that we are in the field of psychotherapy now must leave the dualism.
Despite all the claims to the contrary, thinking we’re still pretty much of a dualistic about the relationship between the psychic and the bodily. We are talking as if a sense could be in the mind without that there was a corresponding bodily voltage condition to this feeling. We are talking as if these two pages, the bodily and mental health do not require each other. Asheim (Asheim in Faleide, 1991) claims that the problem concerning the mind and body make up a “thought knot”. It can be hard denying the bodily, but one can disregard it, put it in brackets. So, one can talk about the senses and beliefs, about the thought and feelings as if the bodily partner phenomena did not exist. You will not have to take a stand on the issue.
Especially in the later years, it has developed a number of psychotherapeutic directions that go under the collective name of body-oriented psychotherapy. These directions are characterized by an overall way of thinking, in which the bodily and the psychic search, integrated, without this need to entail that one is reduced to the other. Body and psyche is considered to be two aspects of the same case, two sibling expression of the same reality. I will later in the task take to me vegetoterapien as an example of such an approach.
More recent thinking, recent research-approaches. What has happened the last few years?
As long as sentiment remained an abstraction without any unified theory base, it was impossible to study or validating therapy forms emphasising importance. The last few years has been in the field of the research found up until the results that will forever change the way we look at the emotions.
The relationship between body and soul, or the organic and the mental health of all time, has been a fundamental topic for philosophical musings. The philosophical questions that were raised by the Greeks, is now within the reach of science, “said Churchland. The science is starting to tail close to philosophy. Techniques such as “magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)” and “Positronic emission tomography-(PET), has opened a window into the human brain, so that scientists can” see “how a thought” looks like “. They can observe the shining fear from the amygdala or see how neurons speaks their own language when an old memory resurrected. Hugdahl points out that the brain reacts in the same way when a just thinking of an action, as when one does it. That means that the tank’s power “is about as big as the action’s,” he said (Hugdahl, 1998).
Recent psycho biological research is in many ways a recognition of the interaction of body-soul (Gjærum, 1993). We have had a shift in perspective from the metapsykologi to the molekulærbiologi. The development in the field of cell-and molekulærbiologien have made it possible to explore the inner mental processes using biological analysis. Biological psychology is the part of today’s academic psychology that focuses on “body-soul”-issues. Over the last ten years, there have been a series of fundamental breakthroughs when it comes to emosjonenes, hukommelsens and læringens Neurobiology.
Stanford neurophysiologist Joseph LeDoux from the Center for Neural Science at New York University, belongs to a new generation of nevrofysiologer that by using new methods and technologies are trying to map out the working brain. Through his research into the circulation systems of the hjernenes Centre for emotions, he has arrived at results that discards notions of “the limbic system” and instead places the amygdala in the Centre and other limbic structures in completely different roles (LeDoux, 1996; Brodal, 1982; Kotter and Meyer, 1992). LeDoux ´ s research explains how the amygdala can take over the management of what we do, even though the thinking brain, the neocortex, yet have not hit a decision. The amygdala acts as a warehouse for the emotional memory and thus for the actual meaning.
The amygdala is made up of two mandelformete structures just above the brain stem. By registering the incoming signals from the senses, “scanners” the amygdala experiences for all problems. This gives the amygdala a powerful position in the bevissthetslivet that can be compared to a psychological guard Central, an alarm system. Amygdalas comprehensive set of neuronal connections up to the cortex and down to the autonomic nervous system, provide it in an emotional emergency opportunity to “conquer” and control a large part of the rest of the brain-including the rational brain. (Goleman, 1997).
LeDoux has through its animal research turned around on the knowledge about the ways the feelings follow. LeDoux said that some emotional reactions and memories can be formed without any conscious, cognitive assisted. The amygdala can recall memories and response repertoires, as we perform without understanding why we do it. The Amygdala acts as a warehouse for emotional impressions and memories that have never known to full consciousness (Goleman, 1997).
LeDoux ´ s work is of the most significant discoveries about feelings within the last 10 years. The research includes a mapping of the nerve tracts for the emotions that bypass the cortex. Sense organs are sending signals to the thalamus and then to the perceptions of work end areas of the neocortex. But LeDoux discovered that it in addition to the extensive collections of neurons that goes to the cortex, is a smaller bundle of neurons that leads directly from the thalamus to amygdala. This gives the amygdala the opportunity to receive direct “input” from the senses and start a response before they fully will be recorded by the neocortex. The amygdala has with the help of the nerve courses the opportunity to respond before the cortex. This circuit provides a whole part of the explanation of how feelings can have such strength that they take power from rational thinking. The research reveals how the brain’s amygdala construction delivers a privileged position as an emotional guard post that is able to “hijack” the brain.
Emotions are important in order to survive. To learn how to understand and respond to risk, is an evolutionary system, “said LeDoux (1996). “The Emotional feeling is what humans have evolved by adding cosciousness to this basically adaptive, psysiological responses” (LeDoux in Azar, 1997). Various survival functions involves a variety of emotions, which can involve different parts of the brain. Therefore, it may be a lot of emosjonssentre in the brain, and not just one.
Other research has shown that we are in the first few milliseconds of an observation of something, not just subconsciously understand what it is, but also determines whether we like it or not. The “cognitive unconscious” presents our awareness for both the identity of what we see and the meaning of it. How to have our emotions a separate form of consciousness (Bargh, 1994, in Goleman, 1997). This has been useful for our survival in an evolutionary context. An understanding of these two systems can help us to a better understanding of the conscious and unconscious processes in the therapeutic context.
Damasio describes in his book “Descartes Error” (1994), how he got a completely new perception of Neuropsychology through the study of a number of groups hjerneskadete patients at the same time suffered from impaired thinking/decision making and weakened emotions/feelings. Many of these patients did not seem to be able to make rational decisions just because their brain damage had resulted in diminished emotional response. The studies showed that our rationality which has traditionally been thought to be the neocortikal, does not seem to work without the biological regulation that has traditionally been thought to be subcortikal. Nature seems to have built an apparatus for rationality not only at the top of the device for biological regulation, but also from it and in the. Feelings are likewise cognitive like any other perseptuelt image, claim Damasio. However, because they are inseparable related to the body, they come first in the development and maintains a precedence that subtly imbue our mental life. Because the brain is the body’s “captured the audience,” is the emotion winners among peers. And because it comes first creates a framework for what comes next, have a bearing on the feelings of the rest of the brain and kognisjonen works. Delicacy of importance is colossal. Emotions are an integral part of what we call cognition. If there is an injury when it comes to emotions, there is no rationality. Damasio says that all rationality are likely to be created and modulation of body signals. This “body-mind”-the relationship goes both ways.
Damasio (1994) says that the emotions is a key element for learning and memory. This has an important adaptive feature. The amygdala is a brain structure in which the memories that are associated with the fear is stored. The hippocampus provides us with memory when it comes to context, which is essential to the emotional importance. While the hippocampus remember the dry facts, give the amygdala the emotional “color” that go along with these facts. The hippocampus is of vital importance when it comes to recognizing a familiar face, while the amygdala gives you an emotional feeling about the same person. It serves as a warehouse for emotional memory. Without the amygdala we’d have a life free of personal opinion, without a sense of one’s own biography (Anandalaksshmy, 1997). Error reviews are accompanied by negative emotions that get a to choose differently the next time. Damasio believes that emotions are necessary in order to make rational decisions. They lead us in the right direction, in which we can make use of logic. The emotional learning as we have been exposed to through life, sends signals that make the decisions from the very beginning, and eliminates the other. Emotions have thus importance to the rational. They enable or preclude the thinking. In a way, we have two minds, two bevissthetsformer-and two different forms of intelligence: the rational and the emotional. Intel does not work optimally without the emotional intelligence. When these partners are working well together, Inc as well the emotional intelligence as the intellectual capabilities. We would like, therefore, not to make us free from feelings and put common sense in their place, so Erasmus suggested, but instead to strike a balance. The new paradigm speaks strongly about that we have to coordinate the head and brain (Goleman, 1997). The brain and the body are integrated by both biochemical and neuronal circuits (Anandalakshmy, 1997).
What’s so Descartes ‘ error “. With his “Cogito ergo sum”, he considered the thinking as something completely separate from the body. With the statement “I think, therefore I am”, emphasizes the separation of the “mind”, thinking (res cogitans), from the non-thinking section, which has the extent to which and the mechanical parts (res extensa). This separation between “mind” from the biological organism, is the Cartesian mistake.
Candace Pert is one of those who forever has changed the way we understand the emotions on. In 1997, she came with the book, “The Molecules of Emotions”. Mind and body communicate with each other by means of the body’s chemistry, “she said. The chemistry we are talking about here are short chains of amino acids, peptides and receptors, as Pert mean is delicacy of biochemical substrate. The peptides are found in the brain, in the stomach, muscles, glands and all the bodies, and they send information back and forth. The feelings are that is the bridge between mind and body (Lynn Grodzki, Fellow, the Internet “Approaching A Theory of Emotion”.
PERT is the former head of the biochemistry Department at the National Institute of Mental Health. She has discovered the opiate receptors and many other peptidreseptorer in the brain and the body. This led to the understanding of the chemical substances that move between the mind and the body. PERT (1985) believes that the nevropeptidene and their receptors is the key to understanding the connection between “mind” and body “. According to Pert, one can thus speak of a device, which she calls “body mind” (Pert, 1986).
Everything in the body is controlled by the tranmittorstoffer and many of them are peptides. A peptide composed of amino acids, which are the building block of proteins. In the 80 ‘s began to find peptides in the immune system, and everywhere else. The peptides provides communication between brain cells and the body. PERT mean that one has found the biochemical korrelater to the emotions in these nevropeptidene and their receptors. She believes that we have the scientific evidence we need for making a hypothesis that these molecules make up the biochemical part of feelings (Moyers, 1994). It turns out that nevropeptider in contrast to other transmittorsubstanser, is very seiglivete and they will not be chemically decomposed or resumed from the synapses of the producing nerve cell. This is true in particular those who are affiliated to the emosjonssentrene in the brain (Zachariae, 1992). Several of the nevropeptidene goes into the bloodstream, and thereby affects both brain and body. It is especially closely with active peptidreseptorer in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Nevropeptidreseptorene can be found in other words in the copious amounts of in the areas in the brain that are considered as key focal points in the production of emotions. Pert says that “emotions are expressed in the body and are part of the body” (Pert, 1987).
PERT says that the Messenger molecules are moving around the body and connects them with special receptor molecules. Endorphins and other biochemical substances that are similar to them, can be found not only in the brain, but in the immune system, the endocrine system and throughout the body. These molecules participate in a psychosomatic communications networks. Nevropeptidene is secreted by various emotional States. The activity turns with our moods. They make the sensations in the body to the bodily actions. Nevropeptidene controls the emotions through the resptorer in the brain that are associated with the emotions. PERT says that the more we know about the nevropeptidene, the harder it is to think about the mind and body in the traditional courts. It is becoming increasingly more, of course, to speak of a single, integrated device, body-mind, “she said (Moyers, 1994). For the first time in the history of science has the mind got a visible platform to stand on (Chopra,).
You have now with security showed that the same neurochemicals affects the entire “body mind”. Everything is linked on the nevropeptidenes plan (Chopra,). The immune system’s cells have receptors for the various nevropeptidene. In addition, they create nevropeptider even. These immune cells create, in other words the same chemicals that control the brain’s emotional state (Rossi and Cheek, 1988). There is no longer appropriate to regard mental and somatic disease as something that takes place in separate areas, with only little or no interactions. Psyche and soma is part of a comprehensive psychological system of mutual communication on multiple levels.
The discovery of the nevropeptidene was so important because it showed that the body is changeable enough to keep up with the mind. A mind and a body reaction is in fact interconnected. Nevropeptidets phenomenal property is that it can react at lightning speed on the mind’s commands. Science has shown that there are hundreds of nevropeptider. They are represented all over the body. “The material body is a river of atoms, the mind is a river of thoughts, and what keeps them together, is a river of intelligence” (Chopra,). Edelmann says that all of life’s experiences and impressions change the brain’s Anatomy molekulære: “we create us again for every thought we think. PERT is talking about “the body’s wisdom”. There is intelligence in every body cell. Chopra argues that a cell is a memory that has built the matter around them and formed a specific pattern (Chopra,). DNA is in almost as much sheer knowledge that there is matter. Carall (1980 in Goldberg, 1991) claims that the cell is immortal. It is only the fluid that flows in as degenerating.
The feelings are stored in the body. Many emotional message need not up to such a level that they are conscious. Nevertheless, they all control in the body. PERT says that the mind has the part in every cell of the body. We know that because so many body cells contain nevropeptider, “she said. Receptors are dynamic. They change shape from one millisecond to the other, and they change what they are associated with, each time they associate themselves, every time they respond to each other, exchanged chemical messages. The body reacts differently depending on the cell that causes the chemical substance. We are at the beginning stages when it comes to finding out which peptide that elicits the feelings, or if it is a matter of combinations of several peptides (Moyers, 1994).
Modest doesn’t have to literally go from the brain to the body. It can happen almost spontaneously. It is another form of energy that we have not understood yet, one that leaves the body when we die, “she said (Pert, in Moyers, 1994). She believes that there are many phenomena that we cannot explain without taking into account the energy. Dean Ornish is a professor of clinical medicine. He thinks that ultimately everything is a very different form of energy. Even matter that is solid as a rock, is energy. Albert Einstein has shown us that energy can go into matter and vice versa. When you focus energy, you get power in the positive or negative direction (Ornish in Moyers, 1994).
Emotions play an important role in our lives and has a decisive significance for how we adapt. The body may experience or feel, “the mind” evaluates, that is to say, “the mind” tells me what I am experiencing. Emotions judge. If we like what we feel, is everything good. If we don’t like what we feel, we make the resistance, we deny, suppress, slide away, opponerer. Then we trigger a natural “Law of Opposition” (Turner in Freybergh, 1988). Melnechuk (1988 in Margolis, 1991) concludes that the feelings are changing the production of hormones, neurotransmitters and opioids and may affect the various steps in a healing process. PERT argues that emotions are acting on the two sites. They may be on the physical area, where we’re talking about molecules and we experience the sensations in another area outside of the horizon. Some aspects of the mind has properties that appear to be independent of matter. It is difficult to study the emotions. All we can do is to measure behavior. PERT believes that it is in the resptorene that the behavior and biochemistry collides (Pert in Moyers, 1994).
The feelings are dependent of the nevronenes function in the same way as the conscious thinking (Fischbach, 1993). In order to get a complete understanding, it is necessary to study how feelings manifest in the body. No suffering is just mentally or physically. Everything is 100% 100% mental and physical (Bøhler, 1994). Psyche and soma is one. “The body and the mind are but rhetorical entities and using such terms merely as a convenience for communication” (Margolis, 1991). Margolis believes that it is in the synapses that mental and psychological processes are “face to face” with each other to be one and the same bodily process.
Goldberg also says that it is on hormone level that “the mind” and “body” meet (Goldberg, 1991). All the emotions of the hypothalamus is received in the form of chemical stimuli. The hypothalamus is busy processing the emotions both quantitatively and qualitatively, and thereby enables us to discern the feelings. In addition, the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland which then stimulates its own production of hormones that are sent to various other organs. These bodies, in turn, produce their own distinctive hormones. Emotion involves a massive activation of the endocrine system (Goldberg, 1991).
Hormone system have that other systems in the body a natural homeostatisk-regulating mechanism. Vegetoterapien emphasizes precisely this ability of self regulation. If a specific feeling persists over time, stimulation of hormone glands will become chronic. By psychosomatic disorders are where an inhibition of particular constellations of feelings (Friedman in Goldberg, 1991). To the extent that the feelings are stimulated, they will be targeted actively against the body (Spotnitz in Goldberg, 1991).
PERT believes that emotions must play a leading role for our health and that displacement of feelings leads to the disease. We know that nevropeptider is secreted by various emotional States. Everything we do is guided by emotion. We know that not all the emotions going on in my head. The chemical substances that conveys feelings and receptors for these chemicals found in almost all cells in the body. PERT believes that we need to be more aware of the delicacy of importance for the health and work out the serious theories about the role of emotions and repressed emotions are playing for the disease (Moyers, 1994). PERT believes that we in Western medicine has come to a point where we overlook what lies clearly in the day. She recommends simple therapies that go on to put the feelings free and in addition do studies to find what works best. The word health comes from a root meaning whole. Part of it to have good health, is to be well integrated and have peace while all the body’s systems working harmoniously together (Moyers, 1994).
Learning and memory
In the following, will be inferred not only as memory storage of data in the brain. Memory is also peripherally in the body, that is, a permanent change in the body as a result of the experience.
In medicine, research has on the immune system, given the knowledge of the interaction between the immune system and the brain (Ader, 1985). This implies among other things. that the immune system can be affected by our consciousness. The knowledge of the connection between the brain and the immune system known as psychoneuroimmunology, or PNI. Studies have shown that it is not just the brain that can regulate the immune system. The communication also goes in the opposite direction, from the immune system to the brain. The interaction between the brain and the immune system can be compared to a self-regulating feedbacksystem. Here’s how our emotional state and our thought patterns have an impact on the immune system’s function (Monsen, 1989).
Psykonevroendokrinologi is the study of the biological interaction between body and psyche in our cells. Freybergh is a professor of psychoneuroimmunology in Salzburg. Because the idea of the Freyberghs theories, is that it is wrong to separate the hormonal and the emotional. He sees life as a continuous process in a psychosomatic whole. All of the features already exists from conception in parallel and equal in terms of hormones and neurotransmitters. Some of these are complicated polypeptider, who have the ability to address in ones, disclose and store information. In this way, developed our body memory. If not our body had this ability to save memory, we would not survive. In order to survive, we need to be able to adapt to a new situation, we have to be adaptive. In order to adapt, we need to make experiences, and to make experiences, we need to be able to remember. Memory is one of the many features that can be found in the body from the very beginning, thinks Fedor Freybergh. This is the memory on a non-conscious level (Freybergh in Bøhler, 1994; REF. Damasio, LeDoux). The human being has in its genetic “makeup”, a predisposition to learn. The way a human being learn in, gives us a greater potential for flexibility and change than what we see in the animal world, because we have the ability to think through performances by means of symbols. All psychotherapy is based on this potential to adapt and try to learn new and better ways to live on (Findeisen in Fedor Freybergh, 1988).
A longterm potentiation (LTP) was 80-years learning/memory model. The LTP is a persistent cellular change in the response-“output” on a defined “input”. Langtidspotensiering of hippocampusnevroner is a clear sensitiviseringsmodell, and can be a synaptisk substrate for this phenomenon (Ursin, 1997). The understanding of the phenomenon of LTP, could be of great importance for the change in the therapeutic context.
Rose (1992) has been particularly concerned about the memory. The understanding of the neuronal plasticity and hukommelsens biology, is relevant for the whole of the human life cycle, from the development of memory and learning abilities of children to the paralyzing confusing conditions and disease later in life. In a healthy person’s memory and oblivion biologically balanced activities. Rose believes that you now have the experimental models and the neurobiological tool that does it take to set up the cellular processes of increasing security and precision. When an animal training, change specific cells in the central nervous system of their properties. These changes can be measured morphological, they can be measured dynamically, biochemical and physiological. These are different levels or language that can “be translated into the other” and none of them are more fundamental than others. We need all the dimensions to understanding memory. He points out that the memory and forgetfulness is not only a passive storage of data in the brain. It is the active process (Rose, 1991).
Standing (1973) have shown that there is no upper limit for memory capacity (Rose, 1992). Nothing is forgotten. That’s the way you ask on that is crucial. What happens next with the memories that are not remembered? Rose believes that they do not need to be lost because you do not remember. One needs a “cue” to get them back. In the same way as to remember is “hard work”, so it can also be with oblivion.
In a feature article in the “New York Times”, 16. December 1997, writes professor Kenneth Hugdahl of “our conscious unconscious”. There exists a “unconsciously” dimension in which the brain nevertheless registers and perceive things that we subjectively unable to understand or is conscious of? Hugdahl refers to a larger study about memory under general anesthesia in which one focused on implicit memory, IE. memories we cannot remember the origin of. It turned out that the patients in the experiment group more often provided the words they had heard during the anesthetic, rather than what the patients in the control group did. In the book “Mind-body Therapy. Methods and Healing in Hypnosis Ideodynamic “(Rossi and Cheek, 1988) bekriver Cheek patients who remember what it was talking about during the operation, IE. When they were in the general anesthesia. Hugdahl shows further in his feature article to a survey where you tested whether the brain detects the external lydstimuli during sleep. The results showed that the brain reacts during both the dream-and ikkedrømmestadiet in the course of the night. We are, therefore, not cut off from the outside world when we’re asleep, and this may likely affect our dreaming sleep. In a third attempt with associative learning, it was shown that the right brain is more “sensitive” for unconscious learning than the left hemisphere. Kenneth Hugdahl believes that these experiments together with the MRI technique shows that the brain is more “conscious” of events than what our subjective consciousness knows about. “What is remarkable is that our perception of the world around us may be governed by unconscious impression and memory fragments to a greater extent than what we’re aware of,” said Hugdahl.
Procedure memories seem not to be forgotten in the same manner as the deklerative memories, which suggests that they be learned and remembered by using mechanisms that are very different from the deklerative. Rose believes that this may be because the procedure is similar as opposed to deklerative memories-eg. horse-riding and cycling-not only is limited to the brain, but involves the whole set of bodily memories, encoded in, say, the muscles and tendons. Memory is not limited to a small number of neurons, but must be inferred as a property of the entire brain, the whole organism. In order to understand memory, one has to understand the whole system, “said Rose. He believes that AIDS like Pet-scanners in the next ten years can tell us more about how we remember as a physiological or biochemical process.
Can we go jumping to any conclusions about people based on what we know about animals? Rose claims that at the cellular and biochemical level, the neurons of the human brain is almost not to discern from other vertebrates; There are no unique human brain cell type or brain proteins, and the physiological and organizational characteristics to non-human mammals and human brains seem to be very similar. Regions in the human brain, which is known to be involved in the formation of memories, is analogous to the same regions of non-human mammals-namely the hippocampus. All of the biochemical mechanisms that are known to occur in the ikkemenneskelige animal brains, also seems to operate as in humans (Rose, 1992). But while all living creatures have a history, it is only the people who have a history. We are the only creatures that have a verbal memory. Our memory power is overwhelming richer than that of other animals. While the procedure memory is dominant in animals, it is deklerativ memory that seems to be most important with up. Nevertheless, we also carry with us the memories, the memory that is embodied in the body through the experiences we have made through life. In the therapeutic context, it is important to keep in mind both types of memory.
State-specific memory, learning, and behavior.
State-dependent memory (the “State-dependent memory”) refers to the phenomenon that the General mental and emotional state affects your memory. Simply put, it is taught in a particular State, remember the best in the same State. Experimentally, one has looked at two types of State-dependent memory, drug-dependent memory and “mood-dependent” memory.
It is now a great deal of research and clinical studies support the hypothesis that the many forms of memory and learning can be thought of as either open or hidden state-dependent (Rossi & Cheek, 1988). The substances (IS) may be important modulators of molekulærnivå when it comes to the fundamental mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior (Martinez et al., in Rossi & Cheek, 1988). Most information substances trigger “second-messenger system (LTP) in the cells that need to be molekulære the basis for memory, learning, and behavior (Goelet and Kandel, 1986; Castellucci et al, 1986 in Rossi & Cheek, 1988). Kandel (1983) has suggested how these molekulærgenetiske mechanisms can explain many phenomena of acute anxiety and neurosis.
Potentially, there are thousands of informational substances interacting with hundreds of different receptors in the brain (see more under Candace Pert). This means that State-specific neuronal networks are continuously changeable dynamic structures. They act as psycho physiological basis for “the mind”, emotions and behaviors. The somatotopiske map of “mind-brain” which can be modified by life experiences, giving especially vivid, experimental evidence for the biological and psycho-dynamics of the neural network (Kandel & Schwartz, 1985 in Rossi & Cheek, 1988).
Joose (1986 are concerned with the difference between the “classic” transmitterne and nevropeptider. He believes they have different functions. An important difference is that the peptides are encoded directly from genes, while the classic transmitterne is produced by the more or less complex enzymatic procedures. This allows the peptides is better when it comes to animal adaptation to the environment. The difference between the classic nevrotransmisjon and nevromodulering (with the help of peptides) has important implications for understanding the psycho-biological basis for the “mind-body”-therapy (Rossi & Cheek, 1988). Nevromodulatorene trigger sustained metabolic responses in the target cells. These persistent metabolic responses are responsible for the body’s “condition” such as the State of homeostasis, “arousal”, disability, pain, hunger, thirst, sexuality, memory, learning, emotion, stress and all kinds of motivation (Joose, 1986 in Rossi and Cheek, 1988). The most striking example of State-specific memory, learning, and behavior, is post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Any stressful life situation (war, rape, an operation, natural disaster, accident, etc) that require excessive activation of the autonomic and endocrine systems, can lead to symptomatologi with post-traumatic stress (Figley, 1985,1986 in Rossi and Cheek, 1988). When the person at a later time are experiencing something that is reminiscent of the original situation, the peripheral adrenaline seem like a papasynaptisk cellular modulator which means a traumatic “flash back”-the memory of the original situation. In severe cases, stress of any kind release enough adrenaline to evoke an anxiety response. , A Kolk. Al (1985) claims that this is the basic process that is under Freud’s original term “traumatic neurosis” as the organic basis of pathology. Here’s how depth psychology and psychoanalysis now inferred that a prolonged clinical study of how dissociated or state-dependent memories remain active on the unconscious level. This creates conflicts and are the source of psychological and psychosomatic problems (Rossi and Cheek, 1988).
Eich and Metcalfe (1989) demonstrated that when there was a shift in the State of mind between input and testing, subjects had greater problems with remembering the inner than outer events (events). They also found that the “arousal” levels had impact on what was gjenkalt. They found that the change in mood with no change in the “arousal”, resulted in a slight reduction in what was gjenkalt, while the change in mood and in the “arousal” levels resulted in a much greater reduction in what people remembered. This gives support to the theory that State of mind (“Mood dependent effects”) Allergic diseases mediated by changes in the “arousal”-level. This principle is used in the therapeutic context, so I can sort out the show in vegetoterapi.
Knockout of the traumatic events may be permanent, or they can be temporary if the event’s traumatic nature must be reduced or removed over time (Searleman and Hermann, 1994). What is remembered, varies from person to person (Loftus, 1993). Memories can come to the surface from 5 to 40 years after the event. The memories will not be reproduced exactly as they happened, man’s memory be distorted by the form that can be constructed by previous reactions and previous experience (Best, 1992). What is important is the subjective experience.
Something happens that is so shocking
that the mind grabs hold of the memory
And in the underground, pushed into some
Inaccessible corner of the unconscious.
There it sleeps for years, or even decades,
Or even forever, isolated from the rest of
Mental life. Then, one day it may rise up
And emerge into consciousness… ”
State-specific memory and learning can help us to understand phenomena such as reversible amnesia that is typical of post-traumatic Stress Syndrome and psychosomatic problems. These memories are encoded on a State-specific way with the help of the stress-related information substances (such as ACTH, Beta endorphins and adrenaline). According to Psychophysiological theory involves any emergency or emotional activation at the same time more or less distinct reactions in the body. When you experience stress, it happens always a certain reaction in parallel in all organ systems. There is a general adaptasjonssyndrom “General Adaptation Syndrome” (Selye, 1976).
There is now clear evidence of the importance the adrenaline playing in the nevrobiologien when it comes to state-specific learning and memory (Gold et al., 1984 in Rossi & Cheek). Adrenaline is what is causing the “fight-or-flight” response that alarm is the body’s natural, unconscious reaction to real or imagined threat. Nevropeptidet CRF stimulates the secretion of ACTH, which is an information substance that passes through the blood flow to the adrenal glands. When the adrenal glands are affected by ACTH, they begin also to produce steroids, corticosterone. Stress increases by increased stereoid-production. With depressed we find, for example, high levels of these stress-stereoidene. PERT calls the CRF “peptidet for negative expectations” because it has been stimulated by negative expectations in childhood. Emotions that are associated with these expectations is thus stored at the level of nevropeptidreseptorene.
Recent research shows that beta-endorphin and ACTH (Izquierdo et al., 1984; Izquierdo, & Diaz, 1984; Richardson, Riccio and Steele, 1986 in Rossi and Cheek, 1988) that is released by stress, tags, state-dependent memory. Rigter and Crabbe (1979) has seen a number of experimental studies that indicate the amount of hormones and their corresponding peptides (ACTH-like peptides, vasopresin peptides and oxytocin) is involved in memory and modulation in the same way. All of these peptides belong to the class of nevromodulatorer who are responsible for modulating the body’s condition.
By nevrosis there exists many times an amnesia as the source of the psychological problem that created the conflict and that later led to the neurotic symptoms. Freud believed that the person’s mental condition makes an adequate reaction to the events impossible. These conditions were given the collective name of hypnoide. Dissiasjonseffekten allows the memory material that is related to the experiences of the hypnoid State, are hard to reach (Breuer and Freud,, 1974). In addition, be able to traumets nature rule out the reaction. It’s on a displacement. (Freud took later distance from these explanations and attributed them Breuer). Katarsisprinsippet can be described by the fact that traumets effect that nevroseprodusent is ending by having the dissosia-sjonsfenomenet be overcome and the experience of trauma and thereby integrate into the normal state of consciousness. Today, we know that a trauma code under circumstances in which the stress releasing Adrenaline from the autonomic nervous system and related responses from the endocrine and nevropeptidsystemet.
Trauma researchers have observed that all or part of the experienced, life-threatening events can be “saved” out of the report only, conscious memory, but the trauma will be “remembered” by the body, and inflict the victim a lot of disturbing, unintelligible and anxiety creative reactions (cf. Damasio, LeDoux). Without treatment, trauma memories be completely avspaltet and disrupt the entire personality development (Raundalen,).
Recent research (Zornetzer, 1978; Gold et al., 1985; Lynch et al., 1984; Izquierdo, et al., 1984; Rigter and Crabbe, 1979 in Rossi and Cheek, 1988) with a background in molekulærbiologi, will try to explain this amnesien by the fact that childhood trauma is encoded in a special State of consciousness. This state of affairs is made up of a special composition of the nevropeptider. In order to get access to the conflict, one must change the biological substrate, that is to say that one using emotions have to reactivate the specific condition that encoded the trauma. For example, an accident will lead to a special composition of the substances or peptides suddenly released by the limbisk-hypothalamisk-pituitary system and tags all of the external and internal sensory expressions from the accident in a particular State or a particular condition in consciousness.
A traumatic amnesia can be explained by the fact that “body-mind”-the State is turned back to normal. The patient does not remember longer what happened. But the traumatic memories are there. They are active and they can give them expression in the person’s dreams or in psychosomatic problems (Rossi & Cheek, 1988). The body remembers. The purpose of vegetoterapi is to bring the traumatic childhood memories back to consciousness. This behavior can occur when an activation that puts the patient in a State that is similar to the condition that encoded the trauma, that is, the body’s signal substances is a very close approximation. This will then lead to improved memory of the memories that were encoded in this State. Emotionally important stimuli can also initiate the memory processes that can overcome the State rely on obstacles.
When the patient recovers from the acute stress or trauma, it is state-dependent memory not available to the normal memory processes, because they are “tagged” in a different State in the brain/body. This is what we call “State-dependent learning, memory and behavior” (SDLMB). SDMLB artsmessig is a common form of learning that takes place in all the organisms that have a cerebral cortex and a Limbisk-hypothalamisk “system”. This perspective argues that there are information substances (hormones and Messenger molecules that act as parasynaptiske modulators), which is responsible for the innkoding of classical and operant conditioning and that provide the flexibility that is characteristic of the children of the State rely on memory and learning (Rossi & Cheek, 1988). Rossi believes that the SDMLB encoded in the limbisk-hypothalamiske and closely related “systems”, the hovedinformasjonsformidleren between “mind” and “body” (Rossi, 1986d, in Rossi & Cheek, 1988).
Biological researchers have focused on our normal regulatory Physiology and the significance of its state-specific nature. They believe that the “behavioral state” is fundamentally in order to understand the homeostatic integration in all systems on a wide evolusjonistisk level (Hobson et al., 1986, in Rossi and Cheek, 1988.
Implications for therapeutic intervention
There are many clinical strategies that have the intention to break the State-dependent effects. Vegetoterapi is an example of this. Reus believes that such a “State subject” perspective may have practical, clinical consequences, as well as theoretical implications. It seems to be important to use therapeutic techniques that touches the emotions. “Cues” techniques can help to lead the patient in the right direction. Selye (1976) thought that in the same way as a shock can cause psychosomatic problems, so can a new shock, or elevated “arousal” sometimes all that. When one has been granted access to the unconscious conflict, the material that is gjenkalt, are encoded in a therapeutic controlled condition (Reus et al., 1978).
The processes started by therapeutic intervention, can also be explained that the State of “the mind” be changed. New studies will give us a greater understanding of this context. This will hopefully enable us to develop the techniques that are best suited to provide good therapeutic effect.
For Freud, was dreams King Road to the unconscious. During our sleep is the conscious sat out of the game. Perhaps one can now say that this King of the road runs via the State-dependent learning and memory. Somehow the dream puts us in a condition in which the unconscious is becoming more readily available, can the State depending on the learning and memory give us access to the unconscious in the awake state. What consequences does it have?
Phenomenology as a starting point for a new understanding body-soul-a link between recent research and therapy.
Engelsrud (1990) shows in its report No. 1. 1, the State’s public health, to an alternative thinking about the body-soul. This comprehension model seems like a good starting point to “look at the body with new eyes” in light of recent research.
The phenomenological body understanding is an alternative to the dualistic body understanding. Out from the phenomenological way of thinking, the body should be studied as a ratio between the Aries and reflection (REF. LeDoux, Damasio). Centrally located in phenomenological philosophy is the concept of “the living body”. The living body is man’s way to exist on. The body makes up the relation to the environment and it’s like the living body, the human being is, Act and reflect. It is through the body of the human being “has” the world and it is thanks to exist that the bodily awareness are being developed, and vice versa (Engelsrud, 1990, ref. LeDoux and Damasio). The bodily make up a common human Constitution and background for the experiences of and in the world. The bodily, often implicit or non-verbaliserte (REF. Hugdahls study), therefore provides an entrance to the understanding of human phenomena and to human opinion production, because the human experience is lived in and through the body, laid down that motion the ways and circumstances. The body “remember” and keep their impressions from life as it is lived. The only real and live contact people may have with the values, is through the body.
If there is a big difference between the body’s speech and what the person can relate to or reflect on, conflicts, problems, pains, etc. The individual design a life cycle will receive, will also depend on whether the body “cultivates” as a ratio between the Aries and the reflection, or if the body is exposed to dualistic up splitting and Taming. Shapiro (1985, in Engelsrud, 1990) are talking about to open the body’s conditions and let the implicit bodily knowledge express themselves so that the human experience can be vitaliseres and become what he calls “the deal body”. It means letting bodily experiences have meaning as a way realizations are created on.
Yuasa (1987 in Engelsrud, 1990) is a Japanese philosopher and has a different cultural background. He is talking about to “cultivate” body and believe that to experience the body as State and Aries need to kultiveres through the meditative and bodily practice that allows “the deeper the level body to speak” (cf. LeDoux). This involves developing Access to that body’s conditions can be expressed without having to be under the control of a “checking the mind” (Tungpa, 1976 in Engelsrud, 1990). In such a practice is not the body a tool or instrument for the psychic, but your body gets all the expressive condition that the person is and lives (Engelsrud, 1990).
The body must therefore “being targeted” and kultiveres that we are going to “get” the Meleau-Ponty and Sartre, we believe “is”. It means to be attentive to us even from moment to moment. Aries is associated with the subject’s body so that the body is not an instrument, “something one exclusively uses to move with”, but it is to live without blocking the deeper body nivåenes language (Nishida, 1979 in Engelsrud, 1990, ref. LeDoux). Aries can both refer to a given and a cultivated State. The preverbale of bodily and emotional experiences can both be a lessons-learned the source of reflection and action, and it will be able to be lived as a udifferensiert State. The undifferentiated is the unconscious and the uerkjente. This level can control or drive human action and life (Engelsrud, 1990, ref. LeDoux).
Dimensions spontaneous reflexive consciousness/to be the body and the reflexive consciousness/to think over the body constitutes a dialectical relationship in the human way of being in the world. The relationship is lived with being the body and to reflect on the body. The two sides are each other’s mutual and simultaneous prerequisites (Engelsrud, 1990, CF, Damasio).
Axelsen (1997) States that dissosiering is a coping strategy and a normal adapteringsfunksjon to protect us from chaos and overwhelming emotional reactions by traumatic experiences. Mental and chemical based “opting out” causes a “forget” what one has experienced. In this oblivion is a protection that can have huge costs. The one who has forgotten, lose the coherence and continuity of life. The memory is blocked, and function differently. The person does not remember in the usual way, but through the sansemodalitetene; emotions, performances, that’s right, the stimulus, the bodily movements and touch (Cf. Quote Oscar Wilde). The person becomes indistinct and alienated, do not understand their own reactions and do not get processed stress and trauma. When one does not understand their own reactions and have lost contexts, can the result be psychiatric symptoms. This can lead to late effects and identity problems.
Life stresses that lead to late effects is not necessarily the major trauma and emergencies, it can be accumulated stress. If a has dissociated a lot, get a non processed strains sufficiently. Gjenopplevelser and late effects can be thought of as nature’s way of working on something on. How can dissosieringsforstyrrelser be signs that a carry on something that has not been processed. The responses often come not before one is ready to react. The symptoms can serve as protection. Such symptoms have an opinion, they are functional. However, the functional is emotionally conditional and not rationally understood by the person themselves or others. A person with mental health problems often react over and over again in relation to the previously unresolved conflicts. This can be the experiences that have been so traumatic that they are like a split from consciousness and memory. The person remember the emotional, bodily and do not understand their own reactions, can not put into words the experiences. How can they repeated the reaction inferred that repeated attempts to rewrite it that have not been processed (Axelsen, 1997). The symptoms can also be inferred that signals and driving force for change.
Processing of the trauma needs to happen both cognitively and emotionally. It is necessary to connect with the feelings that are associated with the memories. The unfinished conflicts and experiences must be made ready emotionally. The client’s feelings and reactions in a therapy session can clarify the person across from themselves and the therapist in a way that this can not describe or explain, but only show through the behavior and reactions. It is therefore important to observe the client’s way of being in the therapy. A person with major mental health problems conveys a lot on the symbol of the planet through behavior, facial expressions, body expression. The therapist must notice when the verbal and the nonverbal expression from sticking together. The feelings can control the person without this understand it. However, there is always a logic in the irrational reactions and actions and those associated with the person’s internal logic. One that is characterized by irrationality, can not give an account of their inner assumptions because they jumping out of the emotional responses that are not cognitively arranged (Axelsen, 1997). With the help of the reformulation and by putting into words the feelings, emotions and rationality, together.
Almost all other cultures recognize the importance of some emotional energy release or catharsis in healing. PERT (1997) argues that when emotions are being expressed-that-when the biokjemikaliene that is emosjonenes substrate, flowing freely-make up all the systems in the body a whole. If the emotions suppressed or denied, you will get the blockages that stop this free flow of chemicals that control our biology and our behavior. Body and psyche are not separated. We can not treat one without treating the other. The road to “the mind” goes through the body (Pert, 1997). Trauma and stress can be thought of as an information-overload, where the impulses are rejected by the brain and be brought back to other areas of the central nervous system, where they are stored in the autonomic and somatic tissue.
Exogenous drugs is potentially harmful for the system. Medication is distracting on the feedback loops that make that it is psychosomatic network is working on a natural, balanced way. They interrupt the not only the natural balance of the “feedbacklooper” that involve many systems and organs, but it happens in addition harmful changes at the receptor level (Pert, 1997). Where it is possible, therefore, is changing with the help of body-oriented psychotherapy to be preferred as treatment by mental illness.
1.A new model
Your body reacts continuously, we are experiencing and experience with the body at any given time. It is used both to express and effect the feeling. This implies that the bodily and verbal approaches must complement each other on the newer ways to understand the body’s expressions. It is important to gain an understanding of how the patient experiences their symptoms and their disease. In what way is the corporeal part of being disturbed and in what way are the relationships to the world disturbed? The human being is not fresh before it has recovered its “being in the world” (the Boss, 1979 in Hedberg, 1992).
You have a need for a new model to understand and control the disease and disorder. Von Bertalanffy (1968 in Bishop, 1994) offers an alternative to the biomedical model. The General system theory says that the body consists of a continuum of interrelaterte systems that interact with each other, hierarchically arranged. Self regulation is an important aspect of this system approach. Systems are to the point and strive to achieve balance in their functioning. Although the regulation is done using the feedbacksløyfer. How to play the concept of “self regulation” an important role in our understanding of health and disease. As we shall see later, the self regulation is also an important principle in the vegetoterapien.
By emphasizing the connection body-mind, indicates the biopsykososiale model is a infinity of ways our physical well-being can be affected by thought and behavior. The body’s biological state is important, but bad health involves much more than just biological aspects (Bishop, 1994)
Such a biopsykososial model safeguards the also external conditions as a social and cultural context, and has important implications for the treatment and how studying health and suffering. A system approach makes it clear that a person’s health status is the product of many different factors, cellulært, biochemical, cultural, etc. Similarly, changes in a person’s health status have far-reaching consequences as well psychologically as socially (Bishop, 1994).
As mentioned the Angel is one of the strongest critics of the biomedical model. He rejects this model in favor of the more realistic and pragmatic biopsykososiale modelle (Engel, 1977 in Green, 1985).
Travel is another proponent of the biopsykososiale model. He emphasizes how what’s happening in the brain have far reaching consequences for the whole organism. “The brain orchestrates, integrates and that transduces points across the biologic, psychologi, and the social realms.” So this can lead to a disease state or the maintenance of homeostasis (travel, 1975 in Green, 1985).
Both Angel and Travels emphasizes the importance of understanding a person’s idiosyncratic perception of their disease. This is important because a symbolic thinking can have an impact on the patient’s response to the disease/disorder. Both emphasize the meaning the disease has for the individual, which in turn has a bearing on the individual’s ability to cope with the disease/disorder. Biological, emotional, and social forces give a subjective, cognitive and affective understanding of disease state, which will decide whether or not the individual will deal with health problems effectively or make a pathological disease response (Green, 1985).
In the past we have seen a greater attention to psychosocial problems. It has become the “in” to have a person who only takes care of the psychosocial problems, eg. in PPT. Once again, it appears that you do not see the big picture, but highlights one aspect of reality, here there are psychosocial. As mentioned in the introduction, we can never understand the big picture by studying the parts. Thornquist (1992) warns of more recent medical “holisme” as a disguised dualism. Implicitly conveyed a perception that it is possible to have a difficult life without this nedfelles in the body. This is to profess to a dualistic thought model. “The alternative to the biomedical model may not be to look away from the body, to redefine the patient’s problems such as psychosocial and reduce health care to the conversation. Option must be to look at the body with new eyes “. She believes that this allows for a better understanding of current health problems. The whole is more than the sum of its parts.
The World Health Organization definition of health includes both physical, mental and social well-being. The complexity of the disease-the images have forced out an overall thinking. Today presented left the sight of the people who the ancient Greeks had. Our knowledge of the context, the body-mind, stands on a much more solid scientific reason and we have paradoxically arrived at the overall way of thinking through the nature of scientific reductionism and via the hypothetical deductive method. But you have also understood the science and technology paradigmets constraint (Monsen, 1989).
Vegetoterapi, both the psyche and the body, a logical model for therapeutic treatment.
Finally, I would take to me vegetoterapi as a type of psychotherapy that take care of antidualistisk thinking. Vegetoterapien emphasizes the importance of seeing people as the biological, psychological, and social entities (see the biopsykososiale model). This perspective is consistent, therefore, with the more system-oriented models, today we find in the field of psychosomatic such as clinical psychology. In clinical sytemorientert psychology as, for example, family psychology, it seems anyway that apart from the biological. Vegetoterapien search using special therapeutic techniques to open up to the knowledge that is in the body. Man seeking to get access to and change the body’s “condition”, that is, the biological activation that is attached to the previously experienced the trauma. This is done by means of the activation. It is the autonomic nervous system, the immune system and hormone axes that combine to form the vegetative system, hence the name vegetoterapi.
What is vegetoterapi?
Wilhelm Reich stayed here in the country for a five-year period immediately before the second world war. This has been of vital importance in order that it is precisely in this country grew up a strong body-oriented therapy. Reich developed the character of analytical vegetoterapi in Norway. He was concerned with the relationship between the psychic experiences and the somatic condition, both sexually and in General. He had a great deal to say about our condition when we experience, and also about our condition when we think (Reich, 1970) (REF. Recent research, LeDoux, Damasio). According to Reich’s bodily and mental (psychological) phenomena as opposed to each other with regard to their structural properties. But functionally and energetically they are similar (cf. the “bodymind”, Pert).
Character vegetoterapi meant a paradigm shift in terms of psychoanalysis and Psychiatry (Sharaf, 1981 in Faleide, 1991). After a long time is the character of the analysis, the understanding of the character as the resistance and the character analytic technique accepted in the field of psychology. Character vegetoterapi and derived body-oriented psychotherapy forms are now widespread. But they are still not widely recognized (Boadella, 1976 in Faleide, 1991).
Reich has received recognition for its intuitive creativity in the understanding of the human psyche, where he sees the body and the psyche as a whole (see recent research, Pert). Several of his theories have had influence beyond the psychoanalytic area, and forms the basis for a rich flora of body-oriented therapy forms. These therapeutic directions has developed unique techniques to reach the vegetative system.
During his exile in Norway put Reich deep traces of itself in the psychotherapeutic and psychological environment. OLA Raknes and Nic. Waal was Reich’s students. Their efforts to develop the Reich’s method-the central character of the analytical vegetoterapien-have subsequently been brought on by their students. In this method are concepts like “character” and “character armour” centrally. This describes a chronic change of “the self” and a lack of flexibility that impairs the person’s way of life. Reich found that the character of the hood had a corresponding muscle armor as physically held back repressed emotions, and that there was a functional relationship between the body and the psyche. Gradually grew what he himself called for the vegetoterapi forward, “a character analysis on the biophysical features.” Character analysis and vegetoterapi lived side by side and giving the origin of the term character vegetoterapi. At the beginning of the end of the 1970s and beyond at the beginning of the 70 ‘s, started other psychologists with the character vegetoterapi, and some sought Raknes for guidance. Some of the old students also resumed his practice with the method. Raknes took in 1973, the initiative to form an interest group for the character vegetoterapi who was given the name “Forum for character vegetoterapi”. Braatøy split up body therapy and psychotherapy by handing it bodily to the physical therapists that he collaborated with (Faleide, 1991).
In this article I will take a starting point in what is called self control-based and experience-oriented vegetoterapi.
This is a kind of vegetotherapi that has been further developed by Victor Lindén and now practiced by Standal in Bergen, Norway. This method is based on the works of Freud, Reich, Raknes and Bowlby and argues that any psychic phenomenon have their bodily korrelat (see Pert). It differs from the character of vegetoterapi in that it does not work directly with the body manually. The client is located on a divan with bar torso. The therapist is always turned toward the patient so that the patient can achieve the eye-contact with the therapist if this becomes necessary for the patient. The therapeutic frame is the same at any given time. This allows the patient turn attention inward toward their inner life and his bodily reactions at the same time as it gives the therapist ample opportunity to study the patient’s moderated bodily reactions, emotional changes, and tankemessige data processing. It is an ongoing process verbally with bodily conditions, with affectsr and impulses, and the therapist gives many instructions and incentives, all the time out from a basic understanding of the vegetative disturbances, and the aim is to establish changes in the-and for the individual patient-normalization-of the vegetative systems (Faleide, 1991). With the help of a breathing technique that is based on the infant’s natural breathing, we seek to reactivate the repressed emotions in a safe and trustfull therapeutic relationship. Thats how emotional experiencese, conscious and rationality can be linked together and be given meaning.
It is a basic principle in this form of vegetoterapi that all emotions and all experiences mostly must be attached to the real situation they originated in and resolved directly in the relationship. The vegetative system “is the feelings” and can best be reached through feelings (Standal).
Reich developed vegetoterapien as a means to free the trapped vegetative energy and restore our body’s natural rhythms. Boadella believes that we’re dealing with a fundamental, ancestral body rhythm to do, a way of reflex that can be found even before birth (Boadella, 1989). The vegetative nervous system has two major branches: the sympathetic that prepares us for battle or flight in response to an emergency and the parasympathetic, with its more calming influence in the direction of the wellness and recovery. Even single-celled animals exhibit a simple form for along period and extension of protoplasma polymersimilar in response to stimuli. This can be thought of as prototypes of what we recognize with superior animals when they stretch out towards the surroundings of happy anticipation or shrinking them in the pain of an unpleasant situation. In superior organisms conveyed the enlargement-and contraction s-the process through the two branches of the autonomic (vegetative) nervous system, from where the impulses when all body organs and muscles. These impulses regulating energy metabolism in the body and control such basic functions such as respiration and sexuality. In all of the neuroses and psychoses are these rhythmic processes considerably disturbed (Boadella, 1989).
Breuer described the dichotomy of the nervous system even before the turn of the century. He wrote about a “built-in resistance to the transfer of the cerebal stimulation to the vegetative organs.”For the sake of organismens security and affektivitet, is the nervous apparatus that is affiliated with the complex of bodies that have vital importance, such as the circulation and digestive organs, separate from the mindful bodies. The vital organs are secured. They are not affected by ideas. The degree of influence from one to the other, vary from human to human. The first is controlled by the brain’s neocortex, the other via the “limbic system”, or the old reptile brain. Developmental dominates the latter in the fetal State and the early childhood “(Breuer in Boadella, 1989).
Today we know that the experiences in the earliest childhood lays the emotional foundation for our further development. These early traumatic experiences are usually hidden to us through the infantile amnesia. Fedor Freybergh is one of those that also points out the importance of foster condition. Breuer held that the motion system is an option for redemption (cf. vegetoterapi) (Breuer … in Boadella, 1989), (cf. recent research LeDoux).
Recent research can be said to support the Breuers description of the two systems (LeDoux, Damasio), while vegetoterapien translates this in practice in which former emotional experiences (trauma) joined together with the cognitive and be done deliberately. As is well known the collaboration Breuer and Freud in a period of time before Freud gave cartharsis as a legend model of therapeutic healing. It may now seem as if recent research support the cartharsisprinsippet as the healing principle how you practice it in the field of vegetoterapien. Recent research fits in many ways in with Freud’s early thinking, so that we also see that the evolusjonistisk thinking fit in with the Jungian
.A fundamental feature of the vegetoterapi, is an understanding of how a State can occur, the voltage is amplified and build up to a chronic condition without the possibility of liberation (cf. Ursin, tonic activation). Reich saw that affected, feelings, unpleasant memories, pain, wants, needs, so to speak, was armoued with muscle power. The body’s tension patterns can be thought of as a person’s “downfrozen story” (see recent research, LeDoux). As in animals, it creates a voltage State with us when we feel threatened. The body will be mobilized by the nervous system to handle an emergency, that is, to “fight” or “escape”. Almost all of the bad custom people are living, is a life as if they found themselves in a permanent alert. The voltage conditions and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system that maintains it, has become chronic (cf. Ursin, Sapolsky). The healing self-regulating processes have stopped working. In such conditions, it is often necessary with external help, therapy (Boadella, 1989).
One of Reich’s basic theses, was that the organism possesses a selfregulation-Homeostatisk regulation mechanism (with the help of feedback circut, ref. PERT). t. The organisem is biological life. Our civilization/culture/society put obstacles in the way of this original self regulatory mechanism so that the primary hosts are not being met. Thus secondary, unnatural lust (Reich, Raknes, 1927 in 1970). Blockages iof the free natural organism is a learned process.
The target for the therapy.
Even self -regulated based-and -experience oriented vegetoterapi will argue that any psychic phenomenon has its somatic korrelat and any event in the organism touches all aspects of the organism. The organism is created emotionally, cognitively and also somatic of their environment, at the same time that it is creating by himself and of certain aspects of their environment.
The vegetative system’s operability is central. This is seen as one of the pillars of the organismens adaptation and will be crucial for how the organism is able to access their growth-making self regulatory potentials.
Vegetoterapien consider all disturbance, mental and somatic, as disturbances in the vegetative system. Vegetoterapi is to work directly with the vegetative system with the objective to restore the normal vegetative processes in the organism. The Organismens yown healing powers, comes out from the vegetative system at the same time as they also works through this system at all other biochemical, physiological, somatic, emotional, and cognitive processes. Change occurs centrally located and spread peripherally in the organism. Restoration of normal vegetative function will lead to optimization of the organismens functional level (Standal, …)
Wilhelm Reich believed that the body’s free energy revenue has been the basis for the psychophysical organism can work. It is first and foremost the breathing that regulates energy turnover (Raknes, 1970). Reich discovered the fundamental role that hemmede respiration plays in any neurotic personality. He described this as a “breakthrough in the vegetative Kingdom”. In all cases in which it seemed to chronic disorders of breathing, he found the interference of inner rhythms, the blockages of the inner organers quiet, harmonious pulsation (Boadella, 1989) anxiety and fear cause respiratory impairments. I fear that if this persists for the emotions, the tensions to keep them down be permanent as the muscular rates and stiffness. Vegetoterapeutens mission is to help the patient to loosen their chronic stramninger. During this work, will the emotions that stasene and stramningene are holding back from the consciousness, once again show up and cause strong emotional reactions (Raknes, 1970).
All the emotionalism and all experience must mainly be associated with the real-world situation they originated in and resolved directly in the relationship. This is a basic principle in the form of vegetoterapi as a Standal is advocating for. Reliving the traumatic events in the whole of the body’s registry, is a prerequisite for solving the contradictions in the vegetative system as these events created, according to Standal. When this happens, it causes spontaneous improvements of the vegetative system’s function. Forkrampninger of muscles slip away, spontaneous improvement of breathing, change of color in the skin, improved vision, and that some say; they are getting easier to think clearly. It is all about merging the bodily, emotional, and cognitive erfaringsevnen together in such a way that the patient experiences/acknowledge the conflicts/contradictions as an organic whole and that they be resolved as an organic whole (cf. recent research, two memory systems, Damasio). The unconscious emotional experience, trauma, be made conscious, be integrated.
Criticism of the vegetoterapi:
To be vegetoterapeut seems to be something that first and foremost, be learned on a concrete, practical plan, through its own analysis and guidance of a learning analyst (Stoknes, 1990). Knowledge is gone “in heritage” to today’s generations of therapists. When the theoretical basis is mentioned, it is in the predominantly degree Reich ´ s books, referred to. This is a weakness. It has also been argued that the many body-oriented theories share a common reichiansk theory basis. This creates doubt as to whether there is a real distinction in theoretical and practical exercise. One has a need for a public school orientation, ask Stoknes. He points to the need to systematize and demonstrate the various body therapies to psychoanalysis to clarify the theoretical and therapeutic standpoints to see what that is like and how they differ from each other in content. This challenge must vegetoterapien take seriously.
Summary and the way forward.
In this article, I have focused on how we in the psychology and psychotherapy is still characterized by the dualistic thinking. Recent research shows that the time now has come for a paradigm shift in the field of the treatment of mental illness. You have to integrate research and psychotherapy. Recent research provides us with a unique opportunity to understand how psychotherapy works. This will once again give us a better starting point for measuring the effect of psychotherapy. The research has in recent years been particularly concerned with the emotions (LeDoux, Damasio, Pert). For many years, this was a non-issue in the field of psychology. This research gives us a better opportunity to understand how emotional stresses affect not just the brain or psyche, but your entire body. Learning and memory are essential elements in the therapy. Also in this field, one has made great strides that can give us better insight into how change through therapy can take place (Rose, Fedor Freybergh).
State-specific memory and learning are important concepts when we talk about the trauma and psychotherapy in General. I have looked more closely at how amnesia can be explained with the help of recent research. LeDoux and Damasio has shown how emotions can be stored in the body without being conscious, and Damasio shows how emotions are a prerequisite for rational thinking. The unconscious has concerned many scholars as Rossi and Cheek, Hugdahl, Fedor Freybergh, Rose, etc. The research provides us with an increasing number of examples of the memory that is not deliberate, but enshrined in the body. The body remembers.
I am using the phenomenological thinking as the basis for a new understanding body-psyche, a link between recent research and therapy. I’ll take the so called for abandoning the biomedical model and replace it with the biopsykososiale model that better represent the interests of the whole.
In the end, I’m looking at vegetoterapien as an example of a form of psychotherapy that caters to the big picture in a way that seems logical based on recent research. Vegetoterapi is thus a useful model that takes care of a antidualistisk thinking. It is with this is not said that it is the only form of therapy which is legal tender. In this task is vegetoterapien intended as a starting point for a new way to think about. In practice, the vegetoterapi can be a therapy-type form that can seem daunting to many. It is not suitable for all patients, and in all situations. But it is a useful model for a more holistic understanding of the human being as both the psyche and the body. The question of whether such a form of therapy is cost effective also have relevance in the social debate. In practice, the vegetoterapi can be a therapy-type form that can seem daunting to many. It is not suitable for all patients, and in all situations. But it is a useful model for a more holistic understanding of the human being as both the psyche and the body. The question of whether such a form of therapy is cost effective also have relevance in the social debate.
We know that most types of therapy used in the day have effect. We just have to teach us to understand why and how so that we can use them in the best possible way for the patients we treat.
The way forward.
Loe wings articulates the difference between clinician and scientist as follows (Loe wings, 1963 in Cohen, 1977):
“Researchers ask why, practiotioners ask how;
researchers doubt, practitioners has believe;
researchers are the logical, practitioners has are intuitive;
researchers seek the general practitioners has, seek the unique;
researchers can Tole rate tentativeness, practioners requires certainty “.
Rolf Ekman is an American researcher who is concerned with how management systems must integrate recent research (Bøhler, 1994). Such integration is needed for further development in the field of psychology in General and psychotherapy in particular. Research can give us better knowledge of our psyche and whether the body and the brain’s State by a variety of mental disorders. This will in turn enable us to give our patients a better treatment.
It may look as if psychotherapy today still are stuck in dualistic thinking. Recent research can tell us a lot about what emotions are and also give us an understanding of how therapy works. When one is in psychotherapy research is going to show that psychotherapy has the effect, it is important to build their knowledge on a solid basis and not on the quasi intuitive thinking. This requires a far greater collaboration across professional boundaries than what we find today. Clinical psychology is moving still “in the special and demanding tension between natural sciences, social sciences and Humanities, between naturalism and hermeneutics, between positivism and idealism, between classical and constructivist concepts of truth, between absolutistisk and contextual understanding, between the quantitative and qualitative documentation forms” (Høstmark Nielsen, 1997). The meeting between the research and the clinical field rockabilly as a meeting between two “cultures” with very different character. Any attempt to reconcile such diverse cultures, will inevitably create tension. Rønning highlights the necessity of systematic evaluation of the clinical service offerings as one of the conditions that must be present in order for the integration between the clinic and the research is going to be possible. Real quality assurance requires that the daily clinic is being subsumed in a research perspective (Rønning, 1997). Sørgaard believes that it’s all about a classic paradigm shift. We have to learn to think again in the field of Psychology (Sørgaard…).
Recent research provides us with the knowledge of how emotions rockabilly on the molecular level, and the knowledge that the body has a form of memory that makes that we can no longer relate to the patients as on body and psyche were independent of each other. This can help us to a greater understanding of how therapy works and what causes it to have effect. It can further give us a more secure scientific basis to refer to when we are going to defend the choice of different therapy forms.
Reich started out with a ratio of body and mind. Eventually, he came a long way in the direction of a synthesis of the different Sciences, a synthesis of psychology, biology, and at the end of physics. It was an attempt to create a synthesis and thus a subject-grensesprengende attempt. Such attempts do you do never with impunity. One does not move with impunity from one subject to another, unless one takes a doctorate in the passage, mean Asheim (Asheim in Faleide, 1991).
Today, we come so far in the field of research that a meeting between the clinical field and the research seems absolutely necessary. If we believe that mental health is important, and if we believe the psychology and psychotherapy is important, it should have a solid foundation. This Foundation is a long way in place.
“I am not a mechanism, an assembly of various sections
And it is not because the mechanism is working wrongly, that I am ill.
I am ill because of wounds to the soul, to the deep emotional self
And the wounds to the soul take a long, long, time, only time can help.
And patience, and certain difficult repentance, realisation of life´s
mistake, and the freeing oneself.
From the endless repetition of the mistake
Which mankind at large has chosen to sanctify.
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